Frank Woeste

Adjunct Professor

Frank Woeste, P.E., Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus and Adjunct Professor of Sustainable Biomaterials. Frank conducted wood engineering research and taught wood design courses throughout his 26-year tenure at Virginia Tech. Since 1977, Frank has conducted research with several departmental faculty and graduate students interested in the engineering design of wood components and structures. From 1994 through 2007, he served on project committees responsible for the revisions of the ANSI/ TPI 1 wood truss design standard. He also serves on the AF&PA/AWC Wood Design Standards Committee responsible for revisions to the National Design Specification for Wood Construction and the Wood Frame Construction Manual. He continues to offer continuing education programs for structural engineers and others involved in the design, construction, and inspection of wood buildings.

 Areas of Expertise

  • Metal-Plate-Connected Wood Trusses
  • Wood Truss Bracing
  • Structural Design
  • Lumber and Timber Strength
  • Deck and Balcony Safety and Design
  • Performance of Ceramic Tile and Stone on Wood Joist Framing

Education

  • B.S. - University of Kentucky, 1970
  • M.S. - University of Kentucky, 1972
  • Ph.D. - Purdue University, 1975
  • Kukay, B., R. White, and F. Woeste. 2012. Fire damage of wood structures. In P. Ziehl and Caicedo (Eds.), Inspection, Testing, and Monitoring of Buildings and Bridges (pp. 73-83). Country Club Hills, IL: International Code Council.  http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/pdf2012/fpl_2012_kukay001.pdf
  • Anderson, C. A., F. E. Woeste, and J. R. Loferski. 2003. Manual for the Inspection of Residential Wood Decks and Balconies. Published by the Forest Products Society, 2801 Marshall Court, Madison, WI 53705 
  • Walker, J. N. and F. E. Woeste, Editors.  1992.  Post-frame building design.  ASAE Monograph No. 11, ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
  • Hoyle, R. J. and F. E. Woeste.  1989.  Wood technology in the design of structures.  Fifth edition.  Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, 394.
  • Bender, D. A. and F. E. Woeste. 2011. Creep deflection in design of metal plate-connected. ASCE Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction 16(1):10-14.
  • Carradine, D. M., D. A.  Bender, F. E. Woeste, and J. R. Loferski. 2007. Development of design capacities for residential deck ledger connections. Forest Products Journal 57(3): 29-33.
  •  Schwab, S. C., D. A. Bender, D. M. Carradine, and F. E. Woeste. 2007. Tensile strength of oriented strandboard as affected by specimen width. Forest Products Journal 57(6): 39-45.
  • Carradine, D. M., F. E. Woeste, J. D. Dolan, and J. R. Loferski. 2004.  Utilizing diaphragm action for wind load design of timber frame and structural insulated panel buildings.  Forest Products Journal 54(5):73-80.
  • Shrestha, D., D. A. Bender, and F. E. Woeste. 2003. T-Brace design for MPC wood truss webs. Forest Products Journal 53(1): 61-66.
  • Smart, J. V., F. E. Woeste, and J. R. Loferski. 2003.  Potential thermal degradation of attic framing and wood sheathing. ASCE Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction 8(4): 203-208.
  • O’Regan, P. J. and F. E. Woeste. 2002. Withdrawal strength of punched metal tooth plates in Red Oak end grain. Forest Products Journal 52(10): 82-88.
  • Via, B. K., A. Zink-Sharp, F. E. Woeste and J. D. Dolan. 2001. Influence of specific gravity on embedment gaps in metal-plate-connected truss joints.  Forest Products Journal 51(10):88-92.
  • Underwood, C. R., F. E. Woeste, J. D. Dolan and S. M. Holzer. 2001.  Permanent bracing design for MPC wood roof truss webs and chords. Forest Products Journal 51(7/8):73-81.
  • Underwood, C. R. and F. E. Woeste. 2000. Conceptual model for temporary bracing of MPC Wood trusses.  ASCE Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction 5(1): 36-40.
  • Carradine, D. M., F. E. Woeste, J. D. Dolan, and J. R.  Loferski. 2000.  Demonstration of wind load design for timber frame structures using diaphragm action.  Transactions of ASAE 43(3): 729-734.
  • Wilson, A. C., F. E. Woeste, and J. D. Dolan. 2000.  Wood floor vibrational performance as affected by MSR vs. VSR lumber E-distribution. Forest Products Journal 50(4): 53-60.
  • Woeste, F. E. 1999. Impact of permanent diagonal bracing on different MPC wood truss types.  ASCE Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction 4(1): 21-23.
  • Via, B. V., A. Zink-Sharp, F.  E. Woeste, J. D. Dolan. 1999. Relationship between tooth withdrawal strength and specific gravity.  Forest Products Journal. 49(7/8):56-63.
  • O’ Regan, P. J., F. E. Woeste, and S. Lewis. 1998.  Design procedure for the steel net-section of tension splice joints in MPC wood trusses. Forest Products Journal 48(5):35-42.
  • O’ Regan, P. J., F. E. Woeste, and D. B.  Brakemen. 1998.  Design procedure for the lateral  resistance of tension splice joints in MPC wood trusses. Forest Products Journal 48(6): 66-69.
  • Taylor, S. E., M. H. Triche, D. A. Bender, and F. E. Woeste.  1995.  Monte Carlo simulation methods for engineered wood systems.  Forest Products Journal  45(7/8): 43-50.
  • Skaggs, T. D., F. E. Woeste, and S. L. Lewis.  1995.  Steel properties used to manufacture wood truss metal connector plates. Transaction of ASAE 38(1): 187-195.

 

  • Woeste, F. E., J. L. Loferski, and B. Barker.  2019.  Coastal Decks:  Red rest on decks is a safety warning.  ASHI Reporter, 6 pp. Download article 
  • Woeste, F. E. and D. A. Bender. 2018. Balcony design – IBC changes and wood durability considerations. Civil + Structural Engineer, Vol. 5, Issue 8, pp. 41-44.  https://csengineermag.com/article/balcony-design/
  • Woeste, F. E. 2018. Evaluating an existing residential deck.  ASHI Reporter, May. (Reprinted from Component Manufacturing Advertiser.) http://www.ashireporter.org/HomeInspection/Articles/Evaluating-an-Existing-Residential-Deck/15223
  • Woeste, F. E. 2018. Truss lumber: Checking the moisture content. Component Manufacturing Advertiser, October, pp.80-85. https://componentadvertiser.com/Portals/0/EasyDNNnews/Uploads/125/1802%20ATW.pdf
  • Woeste, F. E. 2018. Safety information for post-frame truss installation. Rural Builder, May, pp.30-33. (Reprinted from The Component Manufacturing Advertiser)
  • Woeste, F. E. 2018. Safety information for post-frame truss installation.  Component Manufacturing Advertiser, February, pp. 75-79. https://componentadvertiser.com/Portals/0/EasyDNNnews/Uploads/125/1802%20ATW.pdf.
  • Woeste, F. E. and J. D. Dolan.  2017. How to predict a bouncy floor. Component Manufacturing Advertiser, June, pp. 68-70.
  • Woeste, F. E. 2017. Impact of sustained elevated temperature on wood. Component Manufacturing Advertiser, March, pp. 66-67. https://goo.gl/j3HUn2
  • Woeste, F. E. 2017.  Anatomy of an inherently dangerous deck. Component Manufacturing Advertiser, July, pp. 76-78. https://componentadvertiser.com/Portals/0/EasyDNNnews/Uploads/220/1707%20ATW.pdf.
  • Woeste, F. E. 2017. Evaluating an existing residential deck. Component Manufacturing Advertiser, August, pp. 66-68. 
  • Woeste, F. 2017. The Pioneer of MSR Lumber. Component Manufacturing Advertiser, October.  https://componentadvertiser.com/Portals/0/EasyDNNnews/Uploads/181/ATW%201710.pdf
  • Woeste, F. E. and J. R. Loferski. 2017.  A common-sense design to create durable overhangs.  Component Manufacturing Advertiser, May, pp. 66-67. http://www.remodeling.hw.net/how-to/a-common-sense-design-to-create-durable-overhangs_o
  • Woeste, F. E. 2016. Rethinking ways to encourage permanent truss bracing. Component Manufacturing Advertiser, July, pp. 59-61. http://wwwcdn.constructionmagnet.com/wp-content/uploads/FEW-Bracing.pdf
  • White, R. H. and F. E. Woeste. 2015. Post-fire analysis of solid-sawn heavy timber beams. Wood Design Focus 25(3): 8-12.
  • Tsuda, T. and F. Woeste. 2015. Controlling floor vibration. JLC OnLine, December, pp. 19-21. https://www.jlconline.com/how-to/interiors/controlling-floor-vibration_o
  • Parsons, B. J., D. A. Bender, J. D. Dolan, R. J. Tichy, and F. E. Woeste. 2014. Lateral load path and capacity of exterior decks. Structure Magazine, March 2014, pp. 28-31.  http://www.structuremag.org/?p=1691
  • Parsons, B. J., D. A. Bender, J. D. Dolan, and F. E. Woeste. 2014. Lateral loads generated by occupants on exterior decks. Structure Magazine, January 2014, pp. 36-38.  http://www.structuremag.org/?p=1353
  • White, R. H. and F. E. Woeste. 2013. Post-fire analysis of solid-sawn heavy timber beams. Structure Magazine November, pp. 38-40. http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/pdf2013/fpl_2013_white005.pdf
  • Parsons, B. J., D. A. Bender, J. D. Dolan, and F. E. Woeste. 2013. Deck and porch lateral loading by occupants. Wood Design Focus 23(2):15-20. 
  • Parsons, B. J., D. A. Bender, J. D. Dolan, R. J. Tichy, and F. E. Woeste. 2013. Lateral load path and capacity of exterior decks. Wood Design Focus Summer, pp. 21-30.
  • Loferski, J. R. and F. E. Woeste. 2013. Structural safety of wood decks and deck guards. The Construction Specifier 66(11):88-94.  http://www.kenilworth.com/publications/cs/de/201311/files/88.html 
  • Woeste, F. E. and D. A. Bender. 2012. Wood truss bracing rules updated, Part 1. Structural Engineer February, pp. 32-33.  http://csengineermag.com/article/wood-truss-bracing-rules-updated/
  • Woeste, F. E. and D. A. Bender. 2012. Wood truss bracing rules updated, Part 2.  Structural Engineer, April, pp. 44-45. http://csengineermag.com/article/wood-truss-bracing-rules-updated-2/
  • Bender, D. and F. Woeste. 2012. Effect of variability on lumber design values. Frame Building News 24(4): 34-39.
  • Woeste, F. E. and D. A. Bender. 2011. Wood truss bracing rules updated. The Construction Specifier  64(5): 54-56, 58, 60-63.
  • Woeste, Frank E. and Joseph R. Loferski. 2012. Cracks Above, finding fissures at gypsum panel ceiling joints. The Construction Specifier, 64(5):94-99, 101-103.  http://www.kenilworth.com/publications/cs/de/201205/files/94.html 
  • Woeste, F. E. and P. Nielsen. 2010. Impact of plywood underlayment direction. TileLetter February, pp. 52, 54, 55, 56, and 58.  http://www.nielsentile.com/articles/impact_of_underlayment_direction.pdf
  • Bender, D. A. and F. E. Woeste. 2010. Multiple-bolt wood connection design topics. Structure Magazine August, pp. 8-11.  http://www.structuremag.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/C-StrucDesign-Bender-Aug101.pdf 
  • Bender, D. A., R. F. Kimble, and F. E. Woeste. 2010. Method for increased buckling capacity of built-up beams and columns. Wood Design Focus 20(4): 19-24.
  • Bender, D. A., R. F. Kimble, and F. E. Woeste. 2010. Calculating buckling capacity of built-up beams and columns. Frame Building News 22(3): 28-32.
  • Woeste, F. E. and P. Nielsen. 2009. Investigating tile failures on wood-frame floor systems, Part I. TileLetter January, pp. 56-62.  http://www.nielsentile.com/articles/investigating_tile_failures_on_wood-frame_floor_systems.pdf 
  • Woeste, F. E. and D. A. Bender. 2009. Design responsibilities for metal-plate-connected wood truss building construction. Structure Magazine August, pp. 24-26.  http://www.structuremag.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/D-CodeUpdates-Woeste-Aug091.pdf 
  • Woeste, F. E. and P. Nielsen. 2009. Investigating tile failures on wood-frame floor systems, Part II. TileLetter, February, pp. 50,52, 54, and 56. http://www.nielsentile.com/articles/investigating_tile_failures_on_wood-frame_floor_systems.pdf
  • Carradine, D. M., D. A. Bender, J. R. Loferski, and F. E. Woeste. 2008. Lessons learned: Residential deck ledger connection testing and design. Structure Magazine, May 2008. http://www.structuremag.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/C-LessonsLearned-DeckLedger_Carradine-May081.pdf
  • Woeste, F. E. 2008. Safe and durable coastal decks. Coastal Contractor 5(2):24-32.  http://www.jlconline.com/how-to/exteriors/coastal-resources-safe-and-durable-coastal-decks_o
  • Loferski, J. R., D. Albright, and F. E. Woeste. 2007. Tested guardrail post connections for residential decks. Lessons Learned, Structure Magazine, July, pp. 55-59. http://www.structuremag.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/C-LL_Wood_Post_Connections_by_Loferski1.pdf
  • Lewis, L. and F. E. Woeste.  2007. Wood Bits: Prescriptive requirements and inspection of residential decks.  Building Safety Journal 5(2): 22-26, 28-29.  www.nadra.org/industry_news/april07_woodbits.pdf
  • Woeste, F. and D. Dolan. 2007. Is a “spring in your step” causing problems? Structural Engineer 8(5): 24-27.  http://csengineermag.com/article/is-a-spring-in-your-step-causing-problems/
  • McGuire, P. M. and F. E. Woeste. 2007. Non-structural plan review of post-frame buildings. Frame Building News 19(2): 10, 12.
  • McGuire, P. M. and F. E. Woeste. 2006. Wood Bits: Nonstructural plan review of post-frame buildings. Building Safety Journal 4(6): 6-8.
  • Loferski, J. R., D. Albright, and F. E. Woeste. 2006. Tested guardrail post connections for residential decks. Wood Design Focus 16(2): 13-18.  http://www.awc.org/pdf/WDF_GuardRails_August2006.pdf
  • Carradine, D. M., D. A. Bender, J. R. Loferski, and F. E. Woeste. 2006. Residential deck ledger connection testing and design. Wood Design Focus 16(2): 9-12.
  • Osterberger, T. J., D. M. Nelson, and F. E. Woeste. 2006. Wood Bits: Design of window and door headers to prevent twisting.  Building Safety Journal (4): 4-6.
  • Carradine, D. M., D. A.  Bender, J. R. Loferski, and F. E. Woeste. 2005. Wood Bits: Residential deck ledger design. Building Safety Journal (4): 4-7.
  • Martin, Z. and F. E. Woeste. 2005. Wood Bits: Designing residential walls with large openings.  Building Safety 3(4): 6-9.
  • Woeste, F. E. and J. R. Loferski. 2005. Wood Bits: Minimum details and specifications for permitting residential decks.  Building Safety 3(2): 4-7.
  • Loferski, J. R., F. E. Woeste, D. Albright, and R. Caudill. 2005. Load tested guardrail post connections.  Professional Deck Builder 4(2): 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, and 58.
  • Loferski, J. R., F. E. Woeste, D. Albright, and R. Caudill. 2005. Strong rail-post connections for wooden decks. Journal of Light Construction 23(5): 65-71.
  • Loferski, J. R., F. E. Woeste, and M. A. Billings. 2004.  Deck ledger connection design. Professional Deck Builder 3(3): 56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 66-67.
  • Loferski, J., F. Woeste, R. Caudill, T. Platt, and Q. Smith.  2004.  Load-tested deck ledger connections. Journal of Light Construction 22(6): 71-78.
  • Shea, G., T. Osterberger, and F. E. Woeste. 2004. Evaluating tall residential walls for code conformance. Building Safety 2(6): 4-6.
  • Woeste, F. E. and P. A. Nielsen. 2004.  Position of underlayment to prevent cracked tile and grout. TileLetter, June 2004, pp. 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, and 48.
  • Theilen, R. and F. E. Woeste. 2004.  Recommended protocol for I-joist repairs.  Building Safety 2(3): 20-21.
  • Carradine, D. M., F. E. Woeste, J. D. Dolan, and J. R. Loferski. 2004. Diaphragm behavior and design of laterally loaded timber frame and structural insulated panel buildings. Wood Design Focus 14(3): 18-22.
  • Gay, S. W. and F. E. Woeste. 2003. Selecting a post-frame contractor.  Frame Building News 15(3):16-17.
  • Anderson, C. A., F. E. Woeste, and J. R. Loferski. 2003.  Attaching deck ledgers.  Journal of Light Construction 21(11): 81-87.
  • Tichy, R., Bender, D. A., and F. E. Woeste.  2003. Wood Bits: Wood-plastic composite decks.  Building Safety 1(4): 38-40.
  • Bretzfield, K. T. and F. E. Woeste. 2003. Joist curvature verses sheathing curvature and the probable role of each on ceramic tile performance.  TTMAC HARDSURFACE Magazine,  TTMAC, 30 Capstan Gate, Unit 5, Concord, Ontario, Canada.
  • Anderson, C. A., J. R. Loferski, and F. E. Woeste. 2002. Wood Bits: Detecting early wood decay.  Building Standards 71(4): 6-7. 
  • Anderson, C.A., F.E. Woeste and D. Bender. 2002. Wood Bits: Checking T-brace capacity on wood truss webs. Building Standards 71(6): 5-10.
  • Carrier, A. and F. E. Woeste. 2002. Wood Bits: Drifts on lower roofs.  Building Standards 71(2): 7-9.     
  • Anderson, C., F. E. Woeste, and D. A Bender. 2002.  Substituting T-braces for continuous lateral braces on wood truss webs.  Frame Building News 14(3): 36-40.
  • Gay, S. W. and F. E. Woeste. 2002. Selecting a post-frame building contractor.   Virginia Tech Cooperative Extension Publication Number 442-761, Blacksburg, VA.
  • Carradine, D. M., F. E. Woeste, and J. D. Dolan. 2002. History of diaphragm design for post-frame structures. Wood Design Focus 12(3): 16-19.
  • Carradine, D. M., F. E. Woeste and S. M. Kent. 2001. SIPs and SSPs are not the same. Timber Framing. June, pp 4-5. 
  • Woeste, F. E., C. R. Underwood and J. D. Dolan. 2001. Wood truss permanent web bracing design. Frame Building News 13(3): 38-42.
  • Woeste, F. E. and D. A. Bender. 2001. Wood Bits: Shrinkage of framing lumber. Building Standards 70(6): 10-13. 
  • Bretzfield, K. and F. E. Woeste. 2001. Wood Bits:  Bolt design at an angle simplified.  Building Standards 70(4): 12-15. 
  • Carradine, D. M., F. E. Woeste and S. M. Kent.  2001. SIP’s and SSP’s are not the same.  Timber Framing, Number 60 (June), pp.8-9.
  • Carradine, D. M., F. E. Woeste and J. R. Loferski. 2001. Wood Bits: Improving building durability.  Building Standards 70(2): 6-8.
  • Woeste, F. E. 2000. Wood Bits: Preventing annoying floor vibration.  Building Standards 69(6):9-10.
  • Woeste, F. E. 2000. Wood Bits: Preventing excessive beam deflection in critical applications.  Building Standards 69(4):14-15.
  • Woeste, F. E. 2000. Wood Bits: Connection design for structural composite lumber. Building Standards 69(2): 21-22, 35, 38.